Put the body on offense.

PhosChol: Put the body on offense
April 23, 2017: Nutrasal Partners with Natural Partners…

For Physicians



Experimental and clinical results support the assumption that the therapeutic application of PPC has protective and even curative and regenerative effects on the biological membranes of sinus endothelial cells and hepatocytes.

The cytoprotective effect of PPC has been corroborated in 13 in vitro and in 117 in vivo experiments, in which 31 different models with 8 different animal species were used. Types of intoxication which are known to play a role in the etiology of liver disease have mostly been applied: chemical substances, medicaments, alcohol, cholestasis, immunological phenomena, exposure to radiation, etc.

The hepatoprotective effects of PPC have been confirmed as compared to the controls and were the more pronounced the earlier PPC was administered:

  1. Structures of membranes were normal or largely normalized;
  2. Fatty infiltrations and hepatocyte necrosis could be diminished or even eliminated;
  3. Corresponding data were found for lipid peroxidation, transaminase and cholinesterase activity, and for serum lipids; liver cell metabolism increased;
  4. The increase of RNA and protein synthesis and of the liver cell glycogen content indicated a stimulation of the liver cells;
  5. Reduced collagen production, collagen/DNA ratio and liver hydroxyproline indicated a reduced formation of connective tissue.

Through May 2004, 127 open, 46 single-blind and 19 double-blind clinical trials with a total of 12,197 patients were carried out. 137 of these studies were based on 3 groups of criteria, 43 on 4 groups and 5 on 5 groups of criteria (including electron microscopy). 48 studies including histological controls were performed. 17 studies were even done on newborns and children.

The dosage of PPC ranged from 525 mg to 2700 mg/day when administered orally. The duration of treatment lasted from some weeks to up to 30 months. The main liver indications were: acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, fatty liver, toxic liver damage, and cirrhosis of the liver.

The clinical findings, showing the efficacy of PPC, can be summarized generally as follows:

  1. Accelerated improvement or normalization of subjective complaints, clinical findings and several biochemical values.
  2. Improved histological result as compared to the control groups.
  3. Shortened hospitalization duration.

Two pharmacological, 11 open and 1 double-blind trials have shown the effectiveness of PPC in hepatotoxicity of anti-TB agents, which is the only representative clinical model of liver damage to assess effectiveness of a liver therapeutic in intoxication.

Renal Disorders

Eight pharmacological and 23 clinical studies give a first impression of PPC and its influence on renal disorders.

The range of commonly observed effects includes a significant rise of creatinine, urea and sodium clearances, correction of lipid metabolism disorders, disappearance of proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, and a decrease of lysolecithin excretion. Signs of intoxication could be particularly improved in nephrotic forms. The main effects of PPC are the stabilization of renal cell membranes and a positive influence on cytoprotective prostaglandins.


A total of 684 patients in 13 studies received as adjuvant treatment 250-1000 mg of PPC intravenously and/or 1.8 g PPC orally per day.

In these patients suffering from early or late gestosis, the subjective symptoms, such as hyperemesis gravidarum, clearly improved or disappeared. This positive effect was also seen with respect to accompanying disturbances, such as lipid peroxidation, renal disorders, pathological liver function and hyperlipidemia.


To date, the influence of "essential" phospholipids on the lipid metabolism has been studied in 14 in vitro and 95 pharmacological investigations, in which PPC was applied in different models or diets in 11 different animal species by the intravenous, oral, subcutaneous, intracardial or intraperitoneal route, prophylactically, simultaneously or curatively.

The results of these studies, reflecting the effects of PPC in lipid metabolic disturbances, can be summarized as follows:

  1. Increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cholesterol esters, phospholipids, triglycerides and lipoproteins, in serum and aorta.
  2. Influence on enzyme activities in serum and aorta, such as on LCAT, HTGL, LPL, ACAT and phospholipase.
  3. Lowering effect on serum lipid values.
  4. Influence on lipoprotein structure and cholesterol content, especially on HDL-C/LDL-C ratio.
  5. Antiatherogenic effect in prophylactic and therapeutic use.
  6. Decrease of (lipid) peroxidation and platelet aggregation together with improved hemorrheology.

Through the end of 1989, 205 clinical trials with a total of 7606 patients were carried out, 12 of them double-blind, and 53 controlled (save fat embolism).

In the mean, PPC reduced total serum cholesterol by -8 to -30%, LDL cholesterol by -10 and -31%, triglycerides by -12 and -58%, and it increased HDL cholesterol by +10 to +45%.

In a pilot study in 15 patients with hyperlipoproteinemia and high-cholesterol plaques, signs of reduced growth rate of minor plaques and a reduction of the size of larger high-cholesterol plaques were found.

Eleven studies demonstrated the influence of PPC on the erythrocyte morphology including improved cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in membranes, filterability and flexibility of red blood cells, erythrocyte aggregation, blood viscosity and capillary blood flow.

In 20 studies it was shown that platelet membrane composition improved, and that platelet susceptibility to ADP, PAF or collagen, and the thromboxane/6-keto-PGF1 _ ratio of thrombocytes were normalized.

According to some authors, injected PPC micelles or liposomes simulate HDL function and improve reverse cholesterol transport.

Gastrointestinal Inflammation

The following experiments, among others, were carried out:

  1. Whole-body autoradiographs of rats after an oral dose of radioactively labelled 1,2-dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine, visualizing the high PPC concentration in the gastric and intestinal mucosa even 24 hours after administration.
  2. Mucosal PGE2 synthesis and release experimentally reduced by indomethacin application reincreased significantly after 60 and 120 minutes of simultaneous PPC administration.

Correspondingly, NSAID-induced gastric mucosal damage was reduced or prevented in experimental studies, when PPC was applied concomitantly.

Similar results were found in orientating clinical trials in gastroduodenal damage, especially due to NSAIDs, which, however, were dose-related.

These findings underline the significance of the surface-action of phospholipids for the hydrophobic properties of the gastrointestinal surface.


Fourteen experimental studies have shown that:

As PPC is taken up to a small amount intact into the brain, endogenous phospholipid synthesis is stimulated - positive effects, such as raised choline content in the brain, improved cerebrovascular circulation and cerebral enzyme antioxidant system, and favourable actions on the dendritic material have been demonstrated.

35 clinical investigations with 1,968 patients and 3 in 31 volunteers have also given clinical evidence of some positive effects in certain diseases, such as involutional dementias and multiple sclerosis. Improvements of subjective well-being, such as headache, dizziness, memory, concentration, endurance, irritability, insomnia, angina attacks, and walking time have been reported. However, final conclusions cannot yet be drawn as neither the exact PPC dose to be applied in different neurological diseases is known nor is the classification of the diseases with their sub-types clear enough.

Lung Surfactant

3 experimental and 8 clinical studies demonstrate that the therapeutic possibilities of PPC in this indication field consist first of all in the prophylactic substitution of phosphatidylcholine molecules in the decisive pregnancy weeks to support the formation of surfactant in the unborn child. Another possibility is the compensation of membrane damages, e.g. in the presence of inflammatory processes in the lung, or in atherosclerotically changed blood flow properties and erythrocyte flexibility.


Thirteen studies with a total of 915 patients treated from 1 month to up to several years demonstrated the value of PPC as an adjuvant therapeutic application in this condition. The positive effect is probably based on the correction of lipid values in the skin, primarily of fatty acid levels.


In geriatrics, where age-related physiological changes in the organism are often combined with specific diseases, the membrane therapeutic PPC may prove to be useful. The effects described so far for various indications can be summarized as follows: enhanced memory performance of the aging brain, promotion of gastrointestinal function by mucosa restoration, activation of the liver metabolism and detoxication, activation of renal function, influence on the lipid metabolism and on atherosclerosis by cholesterol mobilization, improvement of the coronary, peripheral and cerebral blood flow and, finally, correction of the increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in cellular membranes in general.

Since multimorbidity is often present in old age and the elderly usually have to take different drugs, it is essential that geriatric disorders be treated with a preparation that does not provoke additional side-effects or which even alleviates the adverse reactions of the accompanying medication. "Essential" phospholipids are a phytotherapeutic product without noteworthy side-effects even in long-term application, and without contraindications.